Reading Comprehension – Questions & answers based on paragraph.
Directions ( Q. No. 1 -15 ) : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
China, in recent time, has converted a large number of rocks across the South China Sea into islands, where it has based missiles, armed personnel and military aircraft, using its military might.
The Obama Administration took virtually no action in response to Chinese belligerence against the Philippines — a longtime military ally. Worse still, the US recently acquiesced in the seizure of one of its unmanned underwater vehicles close to the Philippines. Chinese belligerence is paying off. President Duterte of the Philippines has quietly acquiesced to Beijing’s territorial demands. ASEAN countries like Malaysia, Brunei, Thailand and Cambodia are following suit. Myanmar is being pressured by China, by permitting Chinese territory to be used by armed ethnic groups from Myanmar’s bordering Shan and Kachin states.
It is clear that a belligerent China is no longer prepared to tolerate any challenges to its dominance and hegemony across Asia. Agni IV, currently operational, with a range of 4,000 km, can hit targets in southern China, while Agni V, with a range of 5,500-8000 km, can hit even at the farthest points in China. The submarine-launched Sagarika missile, currently operational, has a range of 750 km. Its variants — under development — can hit across China from the Bay of Bengal. China, in turn, has transferred the designs and knowhow of the Shaheen range of missiles to Pakistan. These missiles can hit targets across India. Moreover, Karachi and Gwadar will be used, not only to base the eight submarines China is supplying to Pakistan, but also serve as bases for Chinese nuclear and conventional submarines that are now venturing increasingly into the Indian Ocean. The range of missiles being developed by India clearly signals to China that it will find any effort to use Pakistan as a nuclear proxy against India very costly and perhaps unaffordable. Agni V is virtually invulnerable as it is mobile and housed in canisters.
New Delhi needs to be far more active in insisting that a comprehensive nuclear dialogue with China is essential for strategic stability across Asia. China is loathe to enter into such a dialogue as it evidently wishes to not formally accord recognition to India’s nuclear weapons status, even as it peddles nuclear weapons and ballistic missile designs and materials to Pakistan, while helping Pakistan to develop both uranium and plutonium-based nuclear weapons. These transfers to Pakistan are in total disregard of China’s responsibilities under the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. India has been far too defensive and avoided exposing the Sino-Pakistan nuclear/missile nexus in important world capitals, notably Washington, London, Paris, Moscow and Tokyo. A far more determined effort on this score would be necessary once the Trump Administration assumes office and settles down to looking at the world.
Within Asia, Chinese hubris and arrogance would need far closer consultations and dialogue with countries like Japan, Vietnam and Indonesia. There appears to be a sentiment growing slowly in Tokyo that in the face of Chinese territorial and geopolitical ambitions, Japan should review its nuclear policies. The incoming Trump Administration has also indicated that allies like Japan need to do more to defend themselves, rather than depend excessively on the US. A nuclear-armed Japan can certainly play a key role in moderating Chinese behaviour and hubris. This is an issue that needs to be looked at carefully. All this has to be combined with a vigorous dialogue with China, which includes maintenance of peace and tranquility along our borders, expanding equitable trade and economic ties and promoting peace and stability across the entire Indo-Pacific Region.
(Adapted – “China frets and fumes” – Article by G Parthasarathy)
Q.1. What Changes has China made in South China sea in the recent past?
- China has increased its military exercises in South China Sea.
- China has objected to trespassing of US vessels In South China Sea.
- China has stationed missiles, military personnel and aircrafts in South China Sea.
Q.2. What was the response of Obama Government of USA to Chinese hostility towards Philippines?
- US sent unmanned water vessels near Philippines in the sea in its defence.
- US showed indifference towards Chinese hostility towards Philippines.
- US protested to China against its hostile attitude towards Philippines.
3. How is China pressuring Myanmar for submission to its dominance?
- China has posted military troops on the border areas of Myanmar states of Shan and Kachin.
- China has facilitated tribal rebels of Myanmar to operate against it.
- China creates hindrances in South China sea routes for trade by Myanmar.
4. The recent military developments made by India are acting as irritants for China, why?
- China cannot tolerate any challenge to its dominance across Asia.
- China considers that India would use these against it or its ally Pakistan.
- China is committed to Pakistan to defend it against any attack from India
5. How other ASEAN Countries like Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand reacted to Philippine’s response?
- These countries raised their protest to Philippines against its action.
- These countries consented and acted in accordance with China.
- These countries also sought help and intervention of The US government.
6.What is the purpose of China in acquiring territory of countries like Philippines, Myanmar, Thailand or Malaysia etc.?
- China wants to prove its dominance in the South Asia area.
- China wants to coerce these counties to promote its trade with them.
- China wants to conduct its military operations by using their territory.
7. What does the word “belligerence” as used in the passage suggest?
- To act in a manner of dominance or supremacy.
- To terrify or cause panic to someone.
- A tendency of being antagonistic towards others.
Q.8.What was the effect of China’s hostility on Philippines?
- Philippines succumbed to China’s pressure and accepted its territorial demands.
- Philippines vehemently protested to China and took up the matter with US.
- Philippines opposed China with the help of countries like Malaysia Thailand etc.
Q 9.How China and Pakistan are deploying their submarines in sea?
- Pakistan is allowing its seaports as bases for Chinese submarines for operations in Indian ocean.
- China is transferring technical knowhow to Pakistan along with its submarines.
- China has moved a fleet of sea war ships in the sea near Pakistan in defence.
Q.10. How does the author consider China violating its responsibilities under nuclear non Proliferation Treaty?
- China has raised its army and positioned its nuclear missiles in the South China sea.
- China has sent unmanned under-water vehicles in the sea to use them against counties like Philippines, Malaysia,Cambodia and Thailand.
- China is aiding Pakistan to develop uranium and plutonium based nuclear weapons.
Q.11. What is the reason that China is not interested in nuclear dialogue with India?
- China does not want to lose its dominance in the nuclear field in Asia.
- China wants to excel the United States in possession of nuclear weapons.
- China avoids to formally recognize India being a nuclear state.
Q.12.What the author considers India needs to do in the wake of recent military activities of China in Asia?
- According to the author India needs to have a nuclear dialogue with United States to bring stability in the area.
- The author suggests that India needs to have a comprehensive nuclear dialogue with China for stability in Asia.
- The author wants India to raise the issue of Sino-Pakistan nuclear nexus with all the important countries of the world.
Q. 13. What is antonym of the word “loathe”?
a.agreeable b. fondness c, unwilling
Q.14. What is the reaction of Japan being felt in the face of China being overambitious of dominance in Asia?
- Japan is considering to counter China’s increasing dominance in the area with the help of the United States.
- Japan is considering to review its nuclear policy.
- Japan is considering to bring all the countries of the area together and pressurize China to change its attitude.
15. What is the central idea of the passage?
- China’s over ambitious territorial gaining attitude should be exposed before all the countries of the world and its activities be brought under control.
- Close mutual relationship between countries of Indo-Pacific region is necessary to counter Chinese territorial and geopolitical ambitions.
- There is a need for all the countries of Indo-pacific area seek the help of new US government and have vigorous dialogue with China.
(Answers 1.(3) 2.(2) 3. (2) 4.(1) 5.(2) 6.(3) 7. (3) 8.(1) 9. (1) 10.(3) 11.(3) 12.(2) 13.(b) 14.(b) 15. (2) )
Directions ( Q. No. 1 -11 ) : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
IN a country like India, it is increasingly becoming difficult to alienate the element of altruism attached to education, from the massive profits involved in this sector. An unfortunate result of merging the two has been the higher education system of the country. It is overly regulated, and thoroughly under-monitored. Technical education, as a result, is losing its sheen due to the presence of a large number of mediocre and below-average private engineering colleges all over the country.
Technical education is regulated by several agencies. The All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) has been the apex body for proper planning and coordinating the development of technical as well management education. The University Grants Commission is responsible for affiliations. The National Board of Accreditation, which was initially set up by AICTE, is now an autonomous body, with an objective of quality assurance and relevance in education. There has been a dramatic upsurge in the number of technical institutions in the country, especially in the last decade. The AICTE has been charged with mindless McDonaldisation of technical and management education all over the country. Education began as a medium of philanthropy for the rich. Today, anybody with a decent amount of start-up capital can establish an engineering college.
Most villages and small towns may not have stable power supply, but they surely boast of a technical institute – churning out students by the minute, armed with stacks of degree certificates, but sadly zilch technical knowledge. Education was clearly delineated from commerce by the Supreme Court. However, today these education institutes, which have mushroomed all over the country, have become a medium of earning quick money. Their growth strangely, has been highly skewed. Over 51.17 per cent of technical institutes are in South India, and barely 6 per cent in the Eastern part of the country. States like Mizoram, Nagaland and Daman and Diu do not have a single engineering college.
The British successfully established world-class universities like Oxford and Cambridge in England. However, India was left grappling with the after-effects of Macaulay’s minute on English education. After all, we were the hapless inheritors of their legacy. They did not emphasise upon education for the masses. The British education catered only to the schooling needs of the elite.
Although India freed herself from the shackles of the British empire nearly seven decades ago, she remains imprisoned in the mesh of affiliating bodies. These act as inspectors, reminiscent of the license-raj days. Rather than emerge as facilitators, affiliating bodies have been interfering in curricula, dictating physical layout of the institution, student intake, etc. This system of affiliating bodies remains in only four countries all over the world, namely, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and India.
The IITs and IIMs, being institutions of national importance, are beyond the ambit of affiliations. However, a reputed institution like the Indian School of Business (ISB) chose to remove itself from the drudgery of affiliations. The result is, a world-class institution boasting of global faculty, robust infrastructural facilities, and well-qualified students, who can compete adeptly with their international counterparts. Unfortunately, the products of most of the private engineering colleges lack the requisite skills, and hence are deemed unemployable. A recent NASSCOM report has suggested that only 25 per cent of IT graduates are employable.
In the next three years, India will be the youngest nation, with 64 per cent of its population belonging to the working age group. Still, it is indeed shameful, that India being a young nation, with the largest pool of technical and scientific workers, is unable to fulfill the current industry needs. Ours is a nation of the largest number of English language speakers. Knowledge has been instrumental in catapulting our economy onto the global platform. We have been the largest beneficiaries of outsourcing. However, times are changing rapidly. The same services will soon be provided by other nations at cheaper costs. The Chinese are looking to make a transition from a manufacturing to a knowledge economy. They are slowly, but surely switching from Mandarin to the English language, and hence connecting with the world. With skills on their side, language will not remain a barrier for too long.
It has become imperative that India gathers its act together, and begins to resurrect its technical education. The magic word for times to come would be “innovation”. A nation which can innovate will emerge as the next superpower. Innovation comes from deep-rooted technical skills, and superior managerial knowledge. The need of the hour is to break free from the fetters of affiliations, and allow the institutions to function in an autonomous manner. In this way education can aid future technical force to generate wealth rather than the other way round.
(Adapted – Source- Jobs &Careers 6117)
Q.1. Which of the following can be inferred from passage?
- People of India have been not so enthusiastic about technical knowledge during recent past.
- Education in India is provided with a spirit of selfless service to the students.
- Education imparting in India is not so lucrative and thus lacks enthusiasm.
- Technical education in India has produced the largest number of skilled workers in the world.
- None of the given options can be inferred from the passage.
Q.2. Why, according to the author, in recent past there is an unusual increase in technical education institutions in India ?
- To fulfill the increased demand of the potential students.
- Philanthropists run these institutions.
- Education in India is rewarding and profitable.
Q.3. Which of the following is true according to the paragraph?
- Technical Education in India is controlled by bodies having political affiliations.
- A body comprising of philanthropists govern the technical education system in India.
- Education institutions in India are controlled by more than one sovereign bodies.
- Only a 2. Only c 3. A,b,c 4. a and c 5. b and c
Q. 4.. Which of the following is the main function of the University Grants commission of India?
- It regulates the functioning of technical education institutions of India.
- It monitors the teaching pattern and fee structure of technical education institutions of India
- It grants affiliations to technical education institutions in India.
- It ensures to implement policy matters in technical education institutions of India
- None of those given as options.
Q.5. What does the clause ” to make transition” mean as used in the passage?
- To have a positive effect on something.
- To extend help to someone.
- To pass from one state to another.
- To cross all limits.
Q.6. According to the passage, Supreme court of India has taken measures for technical institutions that
- Uniform fee pattern is implemented in these institutions throughout the country
- these institutions impart good education rather than acting as money spinning machines.
- Quality education is imparted to students of all the parts of the country even in far rural areas.
Q.7. Which of the following has the meaning opposite to ‘Delineated’?
- Recognised b. unpopular c. ambiguous d. distinct e. Proscribed
Q.8. According to the author, features of British education system was
- to impart education to all the able and intelligent people of the country.
- to educate the most deserving and desiring people of the country.
- to impart education to selected strata of people of the choice.
Q.9. Which of the following statement is incorrect.
- More than half of the population of India will be working class in recent future.
- The main reason of lack of interest in technical knowledge is not up to the mark quality of private engineering colleges.
- The technical institutions have grown unevenly in different states of the country.
- The Indian education system has been inherited from the British.
- English language is instrumental in taking our economy to global level.
- None of the above.
Q.10. Which of the following has the same meaning as ‘Drudgery’?
a.Grouse b. Problems c. Dilemma d. Travails e. coercion.
Q.11. Which of the following is the central idea of the passage?
- Functioning of Technical education in India
- Maladies of Technical and Management Education in India
- Prospective Technical and Management Education in India
- Need of Independent working of Technical education institutions in India
Q.12.What do the words ‘Education began as a medium of philanthropy for the rich’ mean ?
- Education is amalgamation of wealth and benevolence.
- The rich started education as an act of humanity.
- Education is a source of wealth and charity.
- Source of education is ‘riches and compassion’.
Q.13.What changes are required for education to help the technical force of tomorrow to be capable to earn income?
- There is a need to update technical education.
- To get rid of restrictions and allow institutions function independently.
- To make innovative changes in technical and managerial education.
- All a to c above.
- Only a and b above.
(Answers: 1.(1) 2. (3) 3.(3) 4.(3) 5. ( 3) 6.(2) 7.(c) 8.(3) 9. (6) 10.(d) 11.(3) 12.(2) 13.(4) )
Directions ( Q. No. 1 -13 ) : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
One of the tedious requirements of the job profiles of a manager is to regularly review and communicate about the performance of his subordinates. A lot of doubts have surfaced over the years, questioning whether or not yearly assessments are the right way to go about, and whether or not the current system of performance management is effective. Some companies have even done away with written systems of performance assessment, and are shifting their focus more towards informal and regular meetings to enhance communication between the supervisor and his team members.
While the essence of performance assessment lies in effective interaction between the assessed and the assessor, there are nevertheless some important aspects that need consideration. These considerations come from putting the larger interest of the organisation in perspective, and not take performance assessment as a one off administrative procedure.
However, preparedness of the manager is the most important aspect of this assessment. This preparedness is not limited to being ready for the one-on-one at the end of a period, or on the conclusion of the task. It involves high levels of clarity of thought on part of the manager, at all stages of execution of the job, or job responsibilities through a period.
Whether it is at the beginning of a new financial year, or the beginning of a new project, it is extremely important for the team members to clearly understand what exactly, according to the manager, is expected from them. For this, the Supervisor should analyse and be eloquent in benchmarking the output levels – whether they are performance based or behavior related. The employees should have a clear understanding of what is work well done. The manager should lucidly explain and justify why his demands are such, for which it is extremely important for him to have clear thought-out, specific and achievable goals. Once the expectations are laid, it is easy for the employee and for the Manager to keep a tab on the progress, and work on shortcomings wherever necessary.
If competency is lacking, performance will be poor. But then, in the interest of your organization, why wait for poor performance to surface? Define and delegate a job as per the capabilities of the employee. Once the competency is defined, it is important to move ahead with the employee as he goes about his responsibilities, guiding him at intervals so that he proceeds in the right direction.
Whether at the beginning or even along the way, your subordinate should get the feeling that you are there to help him achieve the necessary targets, rather than just make comments over the execution. The help can be in the form of an additional hand, or perhaps pushing any interdepartmental dependency, or even providing technical support, if required. Your endeavor will find a positive breakthrough in your leadership skills, and ease the way for you to voice critical comments to your employees to better their performance.
To set a measurable target is his perhaps one of the more complicated needs, because it requires extensive thinking on the part of the manager. But keeping vague milestones like work half done, or partly done can create confusion in the minds of both the manager and the employee. But specific milestones like- achieving “7 outlined points out of 12” gives a fair sense of direction to the employee and is a good pointer for the manager to make further suggestions for improvement.
It is a matter of experience, a manager who has the clarity of thought is constantly looked up for regular guidance. And once his preparedness is thorough, it goes without saying that any amount of his interaction with the employee or team member will only yield fruitful results. Such a manager need not be caught in the administrative system of Performance Assessment. And neither will he ever have to worry about how he can deliver the unpleasant news to an employee; he makes the best Performance Assessor- at all times!
(Adapted Source : The Tribune 11117)
1 According to the passage a manager assesses performance of his subordinates keeping in view
a. capacity of the subordinate to work.
b. communication proficiency of the subordinate.
c. the larger interest of the organization.
2. The author avers that performance of a worker involves
a. job responsibilities of the worker.
b.execution of job by the worker.
c. clarity of thoughts on the part of worker and manager.
A. a & b B. b & c C. a,b & c.
3. According to the passage assessment of performance of subordinates by manager
a. is necessary for communication and interaction with his subordinates.
b. has an adverse impact on the working capacity of his subordinates.
c. is to review regularly and communicate about performance of subordinates.
4. In the passage, it is stated that the yearly assessment of subordinates by manager
a. is the right way to assess their performance.
b. is full of doubts and is not an effective method.
c. is sure to depict their overall performance.
5. What is the meaning of the word ‘eloquent’ as used in the passage?
a. Shrewd b. ambiguous c. expressive d. incredible
6. How is it suggested in the passage to a manger to tackle the problem of incompetency of employees?
a. Job should be delegated to employees according to their competency.
b. Fixing of goals in the institution should be avoided.
c. Incompetent employees should not be recruited in the institution.
Q.7. According to the passage, for smooth functioning of the institution, a manager should
a. not interfere unnecessarily with the work of employees.
b. not voice his critical comments to his employees.
c. understand problems of employees and help solve them.
8. The words “have done away with” as used in the passage imply that
a. have used extensively
b. have stopped using
c. have recommended to use
Q.9. A manager with clarity of his thoughts
a. is regular source of guidance for his employees.
b. helps in accomplishing job of the employees.
c. boosts the morale of his subordinates.
Q.10. According to the author basics of employees’ performance assessment lies in
a. effective coordination among employees.
b. complete subordination of employees.
c. effective interaction of employees with manager.
Q.11. One of the hindrances in the performance assessment process is
a. poor coordination amongst his subordinates.
b. weak understanding between manager and his subordinates.
c. .Ambiguous target fixing causes confusion among manager and employees
12.The performance assessment of employees should mainly be linked with
a. the total output of the organization.
b. the tangible annual results of the organization.
c. consideration of larger interest of the organization.
13. Choose a suitable title of the passage.
a. Essentials of Job profile of a Manager
b. Making performance assessment of employees.
c. Essence of Performance assessment of employees
d. Method of Performance assessment of employees.
(Answers : 1.c 2. C 3.c 4.b 5.c 6.a 7.c 8.b 9.a 10.c 11.c 12.c 13.d)