Paragraph – Sentence completion by words given as options (Close Test)

PARAGRAPH COMPLETION

With a view to assess vocabulary level and skill of proper use of words, there are blanks given in a  passage.

Such questions are known by different titles like Close test etc,

  • These blanks  are required to be filled with appropriate words.
  • For this  a few words are given as their options.
  • Out of these one word which is the most appropriate is to be filled in the blank space.
  • Sometimes these words have very close proximity in meaning with each other. There is a chance that more than one word appear to be suitable for use.But the most appropriate word according to its meaning and use in the blank space is required to be selected and filled in it.
  • For this a fair good knowledge of language and proper use of words is essentially required.
  • A wrong word or a misplaced use of a word sometimes makes a  havoc with the meaning of the sentence.
  • While selecting appropriate words, the method of selection and rejection of words given as options can be used.
  • A constant practice and wide reading makes things simpler. Here are some exercises for practice..


 

FOR MAKING A CORRECT CHOICE OF A WORD TO BE FILLED IN THE BLANK, FOLLOWING STEPS ARE SUGGESTED:

  • First identify different parts of speech in the given sentence.
  • Find out the part of speech required in the blank space.
  • Try to find out the link of  different parts of speech in the sentence with that   required in the blank i.e. if some noun is required its adjective available in the sentence  or if some verb is required, its adverb available in the sentence etc.
  • From the link available, position of the required word can be assessed,i.e. it will tell whether the word will be in singular or plural form etc.
  • An assessment can also me made from the relative conjunction, preposition or article in the sentence an article singular or plural will tell about the word.
  • An attempt can also be made through identifying and linking the blank with the tense used in he sentence.
  • Above all this the required is to understand the meaning and sense of the sentence and to choose the most appropriate word according to that out of given options to be filled in the blank. A positive or negative  sense of the sentence can make indication to the word to be used in the blank.
  • In most of the cases, these sentences comprise of  clauses more than one, formation and tense of one clause can give clue to structure of the other clause and thereby about the word to be filled in the blank.
  • Some times a blank is there to assess knowledge about use of different articles i.e. use of a,  an, the in a sentence. For practice  an exercise relating to use of articles is also  given here under.
  • To cap all these practice makes the job easy and convenient.

 


 

Exercise No 1

IN  THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE THERE ARE BLANKS WHICH ARE ALLOTTED WITH NUMBERS. BELOW THE PASSAGE ARE GIVEN WORDS/GROUP OF WORDS AGAINST THESE NUMBERS. ONE OF THESE WORDS  FITS IN THE BLANK APPROPRIATELY. FIND OUT THE APPROPRIATE OPTION

Nanotechnology is the 1…………………of ‘miniature’. It is the engineering
of working 2…………………at the molecular level. Due to advancement in
technology area, nanotechnology is the 3………………………….. field that
interests many people. From the clothes and sunglasses we wear to
computer drives and even cleaning products, nanotechnology which is
4………………………….… by natural world, plays a big part in
manufacturing many familiar products of our daily use. It enhances our
sunscreen’s 5……………………….. to reflect harmful ultra violet radiation,
armours our designer shades against unwanted scratches. It increases the
capacity of our computer gadgets for storage of data and photos for our
use. Nanotechnology, very broad in its size, 6………………… in itself
diverse fields of sciences like surface science, organic chemistry, molecular
biology and semiconductor science etc. Similarly the research and
applications associated to it are also equally 7……………………………… .
Realising its commercial viability, the scientific institutions in India have
started carrying out research and development work in this filed. It is now
fast becoming a powerful technology that aids the development of products
with 8………………………. performance. The two major categories of
nanotechnology are nano-scale technology and molecular manufacturing.
The former covers small structures and can be used for introducing
stronger, better medicines and faster computers and so on. Molecular
manufacturing is an attempt at building mechanical and chemical
manufacturing systems that join molecules together.

Options & Answers of Exercise 1

1. fiction, art, science, project
2. style, systems, flair, ability
3. impending, forthcoming, upcoming, awaiting
4. transpired, emerged, inspired, revealed
5. capacity, skill, ability, aptitude
6. absorbs, shows, portrays, imbibes
7. useful, diverse, beneficial, indifferent
8. major, futuristic, trivial, strong

 


 

Exercise No. 2.

IN  THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE THERE ARE BLANKS WHICH ARE ALLOTTED WITH NUMBERS. BELOW THE PASSAGE ARE GIVEN WORDS/GROUP OF WORDS AGAINST THESE NUMBERS. ONE OF THESE WORDS  FITS IN THE BLANK APPROPRIATELY. FIND OUT THE APPROPRIATE OPTION.

 

Speaking in public is a 1…………….as its other forms like singing, writing or

acting are. The speaker is required to be careful or rather more 2………..

because one of its most important requirement is to appear 3………………

to the audience. In ancient times, the great speakers used to prepare their

speeches before a 4……………….   of their known persons and noticed  their

own 5………………….… and 6……….………. of the spectators. Their audience

7……………….  their trusted friends, critics and mentors. They repeated their

speech a number of times in order to make 8…………over their words, speech

and way of speaking. This made their speaking perfect and 9.……………and

also made their way of speaking perfect and 10…………. This all appeared not

only highly perfect product but also a genuine way of expression. This is the

reason that we still study the speeches of great men to gain experience and

perfection in  our acts of speaking in public more 11. ……….……………. and

flawlessly.

 

 

 

Options & Answers of Exercise 2

1.(a)Aptitude (b) form of an art (c)occupation, (d)Vocation (e)profession.

2 (a)Alert (b)careful (c) cautious, (d)vigilant, (e)thoughtful.

3. (a)impulsive (b)prudent (c) discreet (d) subtle(e) spontaneous.

4. (a) assembly, (b) crowd, (c)  horde  (d) gathering (e) multitude.

5.  (a) defects (b) shortcomings (c) faults (d)imperfections  (e), mistakes.

6.(a) reply, (b) response, (c) reaction,(d) answer, (e)rejoinder.

7. (a) included, (b) involved, (c) contained, (d) comprised, (e) gathered.

8. (a) appreciation, (b) expertise, (c) capability, (d) ability, (e) a good command.

9. (a) clean, (b) neat, (c) foolproof,  (d) immaculate,  (e) secure.

10. (a) correct, (b)  faultless, (c) right, (d) impeccable, (e) ideal.

11. (a) efficiently,  (b)  well, (c) competently, (d) ably, (e) proficiently.

 

 


 

Exercise No. 3.

Fill in the blanks in the following Paragraph with words out of given respective options :

 

It is a well-established (1…………………..) that some people have “mathematical mind” while others do not. (2……………….) , the myth is (3………………….) to mathematics; you never hear, for example, that someone with a historical mind. It is a general belief (4………………….) us that if we do not learn something it is because we cannot.  In fact mathematical ideas that are difficult at an early age are much easier to (5……………………) a few years later, if we give them another try.

Another handicap (followed/shown/ borne) by the math anxious seems to be a distrust of their own (6………………………..). An immediate right formula or give up the problem is  the real action on the part of a mathematician. Mathematicians trust their intuition in solving problems and they (7…………………………..) able to function without it. Another(8………………………..)distinction between the mathematics anxious and people who are not good at figures is a difference in attitude. So the persons with guessing and estimating (9………………………) and having intuitive thinking should be encouraged and rewarded in the class. This helps in learning word problems, coping with equations and confronting theorems and thereby overpowering the mythical (10…………………..) of mathematics.

 

 

Answers for Exercise no. 3

1. myth/fable/legend

2. Formidably/  Dauntingly/ Interestingly

3. limited/restricted/perpetuated

4. amongst/against/ with

5. derive/comprehend/deduce

6. sensibility/ intuition/Debility

7. cannot be/ would not be/should not be

8. obvious/tangible/glaring

9. perception/ attitude/outlook

10. lack/fright/shock

 

 


 

Exercise No. 4.

IN  THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE THERE ARE BLANKS WHICH ARE ALLOTTED WITH NUMBERS. BELOW THE PASSAGE ARE GIVEN WORDS/GROUP OF WORDS AGAINST THESE NUMBERS. ONE OF THESE WORDS  FITS IN THE BLANK APPROPRIATELY. FIND OUT THE APPROPRIATE OPTION.

 

The 1………………………inexhaustible  sources of energy like fossil fuels are 2……………………so fast that it is not far off when these sources will disappear and will not be available on this earth. It is because we are 3………………. depending upon these and are making use of these in greater quantity than these are available to us in the lap of nature. As a result these are falling short of our demands. Besides there are fewer efforts to explore 4…………………. methods of energy to meet with the requirements. The earth has a 5………………. supply of fossil fuels.

There are successful attempts to harness nuclear energy as  6………………………… mode to generate power but at rather small and restrictive scale. Nuclear power plants need less fuel than ones that burn fossil fuels. One ton of uranium produces more energy than is produced by several million tons of coal or several million barrels of oil. Most nuclear reactors only need to be refuelled every 18 months or so. At each refueling, a third of the fuel is removed and stored as waste, and new fuel is inserted in its place. The new fuel costs about $40 to $60 million per refueling. By contrast, a similarly sized natural gas power plant can consume up to $600 million in natural gas over the same time period. A similarly sized coal plant 7…………………………….. at least a dozen large dump trucks full of coal each day. The fission of one atom of uranium 8…………………….. ten million times more energy than the combustion of one carbon atom from coal.

Coal and oil burning plants pollute the air. Well-operated nuclear power plants do not release 9………………….. into the environment. In coal production, mining creates 10………………………… problems like the acid runoff from coal mining sites. At the site where we burn coal, nitrous oxides and sulfur oxides are 11………………………….. causing pollution in the surrounding areas.These gases are deadly harmful for living beings of those areas.

 

Options & Answers of Exercise 4.

  1.  (a) Probably  (b)Largely (c) seemingly (d) absolutely
  2. (a) aggravating (b)  devouring (c) digressing (d) depleting 
  3. (a) unduly  (b) closely  (c) heavily (d) deeply
  4.  (a) better (b) alternative (c) advanced  (d) superior
  5. (a) meager (b) diminishing (c) shallow  (d) limited 
  6. (a) a modern  (b) an appropriate  (c) a popular (d)  an alternative
  7. (a) would require  (b) had required (c) could require (d) would have required
  8. (a) explodes (b) holds (c) produces (d)  drops
  9. (a) contaminants (b)  infection (c) pollution (d) wastes
  10. (a) health (b)  environmental (c) handling (d) technical
  11. (a) formed (b) delivered (c) released (d)  produced

 

 


 

Exercise No. 5.

IN  THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE THERE ARE BLANKS WHICH ARE ALLOTTED WITH NUMBERS. BELOW THE PASSAGE ARE GIVEN WORDS/GROUP OF WORDS AGAINST THESE NUMBERS. ONE OF THESE WORDS  FITS IN THE BLANK APPROPRIATELY. FIND OUT THE APPROPRIATE OPTION.

Although many Indian Information and Technology sector firms have tried to1……………..successful products, they aren’t very successful. This can be explained by the Indian penny-pinching and risk-averse management habits. Besides this, the Indian firms have to develop products in a capital-scarce and labour-abundant 2………………… Due to these factors, it is very difficult for Indian software companies to achieve technological success. Furthermore, software companies in developing countries only try to satisfy 3………………. customers by producing the products they need and forget to 4………………. needs from unknown customers. Although these companies should try to be (technically) innovative, they rather stick to familiar products. So, technical innovation will have to be carried out by start-ups and other entrants.

The software industry is 5………………….by the United States. The United States cover about 21.7% of the software exports but in fact this percentage must be higher. The dominance of the United States within this export industry can 6………………… the good user-producer interactions and the American lead users. It is  stated that as long as these lead users are American, the centre of the software export industry will be located in the United States.

This 7……………………… of the United States doesn’t mean that software companies in other countries aren’t able to be successful. For example, an Israeli company has succeeded in developing security software. So the aim for software companies in developing countries is to develop software products for niches that American companies don’t supply. If a non-American company has been able to develop such a product, the bulk of these companies has moved their commercial activities to the United States and only kept their research department in their home country.

The importance for companies of being close to its customers cannot be 8………………… because the software company needs to know how the customer company runs its business.

Owing to the fact that the United States owns the 9…………………… part of the software industry and the most important lead users are American, software companies have a hard time competing with software companies that are located in the United States. However, there are two possibilities for these companies namely:

Software companies located in other countries can try to develop software with the aim to meet needs of customers who have other desires than American customers. i-Flex has employed this strategy.

These software companies can also 10……………….. a commercial department in the United States while the product development and maintenance department is still located in for instance India. Texas Instruments was the first company that has adopted this strategy. Afterwards, Motorola, Oracle, Cadence, Microsoft, Free scale and Intel have also adopted this strategy.                                                                                                                                             (Adapted)

 

 

Options & Answers of Exercise 5.

  1. produce/generate /develop/create
  2. area/ environment/country/domain.
  3. 3. running / familiar/preferred /current
  4. predict /urgent/immediate/ insistent
  5. governed/managed/ administered/dominated
  6. be ascribed to/ lead to / result into/pave way to
  7. control/power/governance/dominance
  8. estimated/ undermined /imagined/ rated
  9. greater/ only/overall/controlling
  10. create/raise/ establish/acquire

 

 


 

Exercise No. 6.

IN  THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE THERE ARE BLANKS WHICH ARE  REQUIRED TO BE FILLED IN WITH ONE OF THE ARTICLES i.e. A. AN OR THE. FILL IN  THE BLANKS WITH AN  APPROPRIATE WORD.

Last fortnight I had 1. ……….opportunity to visit 2………..hill station. I have many 3……...friends but I could not inform any of them about 4……....trip. This was because it was all of 5……..sudden that I made 6……….decision to go to Shimla. It was not 7……….first time that I visited a  hill station as I had been to 8…….number of hill stations earlier too. This time it was  really 9 …….. fantastic time for me. I can say with 10.. ….. great confidence that 11……..place I visited this time is one of 12……...best places worth visiting. I started 13…………..trip early in 14…....morning. I had hired 15……….cab that arrived at my place in time. Soon I was transported to 16…..lap of nature. My cab travelled through 17……..hilly serpentine ways.

While I was enjoying 18…….. spectacular view  there, I met 19…….old friend of mine strolling on 20……...Mall Road. We met after 21…….pretty log time. He is running 22……….flourishing hotel business in 23…….city there. He took me to 24…….hotel situated at 25………stone’s throw from .26…..Mall road. He also obliged me with 27 ……..free lodging there. The next morning he arranged 28……... car for me to visit all 29………..tourist places surrounding .30……..city. I had.31……..very nice stay in 32……..city of Shimla. What 33……..adventure and 34……..fabulous experience of visiting 35……..hill station. It has left 36……...indelible impression on 37……. screen of my mind for 38……..whole life.

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