Reading Comprehension — Understanding the Main idea contained in the Paragraph by providing answers to questions following the paragraph.
With a view to examine or test the ability or understanding of the candidate about the idea given in the paragraph, it is followed by a number of questions to be replied. Some of these questions are of general nature and others of specific one about what is stated in the paragraph. One or two questions also relate to antonyms and meanings of some words used in the paragraph or conversion of words from one part of speech to other. For this, is required a fair good knowledge of word power, grammar and ability to understand what is given in the paragraph. One needs to read between the lines to pick up the meaning of what is stated. This can be possible by linking various points of idea and understanding the underlying motive of the author behind these. In addition to these all, time factor too is to be kept in mind.
Here are a few such exercises of paragraphs given with answers accompanied by their explanations for practice.
EXERCISE NO 1
Read the following paragraph carefully and based on information in the paragraph answer the questions following it.
Global warming caused by global climate change is one of the most important challenges humanity is facing today for its existence. It is the increase in average temperature of the earth’s near-surface air and oceans.This can be due to natural reasons as well as human social activity. According to the UNO’s intergovernmental panel on climate change the main cause of global warming since the middle of the 20th century is human activity related to fossil fuel burning and deforestation.These human activities lead to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, which result in trapping the sun’s radiation in the earth’s atmosphere, leading to warming of the earth. The main greenhouse gases are : Carbon dioxide, Methane and nitrous oxide, of which Carbon dioxide is the most important.
The high increase in the generation of the greenhouse gases is a product of the manner in which our modern socio-economic system runs.It requires intensified use of resources especially energy to carry on expanding production of commodities and services.
The rate at which global warming is taking place is frightening. The year 2015 is likely to be the hottest year since the earth temperature started being recorded in 1850. This is on top of the year 2014 having been the hottest year so far. The consequences of such global warming will be the melting of ice-caps, rise in sea levels and flooding. Flooding destroys crops and lands, and contributes to food shortages. Some of the other consequences of global warming are deaths due to rising malaria epidemic, heat strokes and food poisoning etc.
There are two key aspects of dealing with the challenge of global climate change : Mitigation and Adaptation. Mitigation means reduction in green house gases emissions and adaptation means preparing for some of the inevitable consequences of global warming. For this various governments will have to develop a framework of greater reliance upon renewable resources of energy and a system of encouraging environmentally friendly economic activities. The great environmental ethic of three Rs – reduce, reuse and recycle – should be our life style rather than the current consumerist lifestyle.
Besides, the health systems need to be upgraded to deal with large scale of deaths of human beings. Flood control systems too need to be developed to meet the challenge. For all this the global leadership will have to rise up and hammer out a treaty with legally binding emissions reduction targets duly backed up strongly by its implementation in its true spirit.
1. What does the term Global Warming imply & how it impacts ecology ?
2. Which gases cause Global warming and how ?
3. How is our socio-economic system held responsible for creation of greenhouse gases?
4. How global warming causes floods and what are their effects?
5. What are the environmentally friendly economic activities ?
6. Describe the environmental ethics of three Rs. What is their importance ?
7. Which systems need to be toned up to meet with challenges of global warming?
8. How can the world of today get rid of ‘global warming’ by changing the concept of energy ?
1. Which word in the paragraph is antonym of “aggravation” .
2. What is the meaning of the term ‘fossil fuel burning’ ?
3. In the sentence, “Flooding destroys crops and lands” use noun form of the word ‘destroys’.
Exercise No. 1
- Global warming is the increase in average temperature of the earth’s near-surface, air and oceans caused natural reasons as well as human social activity.
- Global warming is caused by greenhouse gases like Carbondioxide, Methane and nitrous oxide, Their increasing concentration results in trapping the sun’s radiation in the earth’s atmosphere. It causes warming of the earth.
- Human activities related to fossil fuel burning and deforestation are responsible for creation of increasing greenhouse gases and their concentrations, It results in trapping the sun’s radiation in the earth’s atmosphere, leading to warming of the earth.
- Global warming results in melting of ice-caps, rise in sea levels and flooding. Flooding destroys crops and lands, and contributes to food shortages. It also causes deaths due to rising malaria epidemic, heat strokes and food poisoning etc.
- The environmentally friendly economic activities are greater dependence upon renewable resources of energy and the ethic of three Rs – reduce, reuse and recycle. as life style.
- The activities causing emission of greenhouse gases should be reduced. Various products should be reused and recycled. Renewable sources of energy should be used. This will reduce emission of greenhouse gases and thereby global warming.
7. The concept of mitigation and adaptation should be adopted to meet with challenges of global warming. Mitigation means reduction in green house gases emissions and adaptation means preparing for some of the inevitable consequences of global warming.
8. Global warming can be prevented by developing a framework of greater use and dependence upon renewable resources of energy and a system of encouraging environmentally friendly economic activities. The ethic of three Rs – reduce, reuse and recycle – should be adopted as life style rather than the current consumerist lifestyle.
2. Burning of fuels extracted from fossils like oil coal and gas etc.