(contd from previous post)
Change of Different types of sentences from Direct speech into Indirect speech.
While changing a sentence from Direct form of speech to Indirect form of speech or vice versa following points are to be observed.
In Direct form of speech there is a statement within the inverted commas made by the speaker usually addressed to the person whom it is addressed. There is a reported speech inside the inverted commas and reporting speech outside inverted commas.
A sentence generally has a Subject, an Object & a Verb. A Subject or an object are usually denoted by a Noun or a Pronoun. These are represented by three forms of persons i.e. First Person, Second Person & Third Person.
- First Person is the person who is speaking or is making the statement.
First Person Singular — I , My , Me.
First Person Plural —– We , Our , Us.
- Second Person is the person to whom the speaker is addressing or to whom the statement is being told.
Second Person Singular & Plural —– You , Your , You .
- Third Person is the person except above two categories referred in the statement or about whom reference is made in the speech.
Third Person Singular —- He , His , Him OR She , Her , Her .
Third Person Plural —– They , Their , Them .
|Second Person||Singular & Plural||You||Your||You|
While changing direct form of speech to Indirect form of speech :
- First Person in reported speech changes according to Subject in reporting speech.
- Second Person in reported speech changes according to object in reporting speech.
- Third Person in reported speech does not change.
|First Person||Second Person||Third Person|
Interrogative sentences are of two types.
A. First starting with helping verbs like is, am, are, were, was, had, have, shall, will or would etc.
B. The second type of interrogative sentences are which start with words like – What,Which, Why, Who,Whose,Where,When, How and Whom etc.
While changing direct form of speech into Indirect form in case of interrogative sentences, said to is replaced by ‘asked or inquired of ‘
Inverted commas are replaced by ‘if or whether’ in case of first type (A) of sentences but in case of second type of sentences (B), no word is written in place of inverted commas.
For Example :
First Form :
The stranger said to me,” Have you ever been to my village earlier?”
In this case
“said to ” = asked or inquired of . ” ” = if or whether
The interrogative sentence in the reported speech will be changed into simple or assertive form of sentence.
It will be — ‘You have ever been to my village earlier’
You is second person and it will change according to the subject i.e. ‘me’. It will be ‘I’ ‘Have ‘ is first form of verb and it will change into second form of verb i.e. ‘had’. ‘my’ is first person and it will change according to Subject i,e, ‘the stranger’ which is third person singular i.e. equivalent to ‘He’. So ‘my’ has its equivalent in third person ‘his’.
The Indirect form of the sentence —— The stranger said to me,” Have you ever been to my village earlier?”
The stranger asked me if I had ever been to his village earlier. OR
The stranger inquired of me whether I had ever been to his village earlier.
Second Form :
The doctor said to the patient, ” How do you feel now ? Why are you not taking your medicine regularly? “
In this case changes will be as under-
said to = asked or inquired of Inverted commas will be removed without substituting any word.
do feel = feel
The two sentences in positive form or assertive form will be
How you feel now. Why you are not taking your medicine regularly.
FIRST SENTENCE : You is second person. It will change according to object ‘the patient” -third person singular.(he)
Now = then. Do feel (first form of verb) = felt (second form of verb)
The first sentence in its indirect form will be : how he felt then.
Second Sentence : you = he are not taking = was not taking your = his.
The complete sentence in its indirect form will be:
The doctor asked the patient how he felt then and why he was not taking his medicine regularly.
The doctor inquired of the patient how he felt then and why he was not taking his medicine regularly.
The old lady said,” My son, why are you so late from your office today ? Have you taken your meals or not? Why did not you inform me about it during the day? “
In this sentence, in the reporting speech subject is the old lady (third person singular) but its object is in the reported speech- My son ( third person singular). This sentence in assertive form will be:
- The old lady said to her son 2. why you are so late from your office today. 3. You have taken your meals or not. 4. Why you did not inform me about it during the day.
The sentence in its indirect form will be:
The old lady asked her son why he was so late from his office that day and if he had taken his meals or not. She further inquired of him why he had not informed her about it during the day.
Here are some similar sentences for practice.
Change the following sentences from direct into indirect form of speech.
- The old man said,” Young man, hadn’t I warned you time and again against his treacherous behavior?”
- The young lady said to the beggar, ” Why don’t you do some work? Do you not feel ashamed of begging?”
- The policeman said to the passerby, ” Have you seen which way the thief fled?”
- My friend said to me, ” Has she invited you to her marriage party the next Sunday?”
- Her brother said to her, ” Are you coming to my house tonight to attend the party?”
- The student said,” Madam, will help me in solving this problem ?’
- The shopkeeper said to the customer,” Should I get delivered all of these articles at your place?”
- The priest said to the visitor,” Can’t you wait for the hermit till tomorrow morning?”
- The lion said to the wolf,” Why are you spoiling my water? Should not I punish you for this fault ?”
- The guest said to the host,” Is there a person who will fetch me a glass of water?”
- The old man asked the young man if he had not warned him time and again against his treacherous behavior.
- The young lady asked the beggar why he did not do some work and if he did not feel ashamed of begging.
- The policeman asked the passerby if he had seen which way the thief had fled.
- My friend asked me if she had invited me to her marriage party the next Sunday.
- Her brother asked her if she was coming to his house that night to attend the party.
- The student asked madam if she would help him in solving that problem.
- The shopkeeper asked the customer if he should get delivered all of those articles at his place.
- The priest said to the visitor if he could not wait for the hermit till next day morning.
- The lion asked the wolf why he was spoiling his water and if he should not punish him for that fault.
- The guest asked the host if there was a person who would fetch him a glass of water.