NARRATION – (Chapter 10) – Direct & Indirect form of speech – Common Errors

NARRATION

Two forms of speech :-                 Direct form of speech & Indirect form  of speech

When the actual form and words of the speaker are used, it is direct speech but when one gives the substance of speech of the speaker it is indirect speech.

Howard said to his brother, “I am going to the market.”      ……….   Direct form of speech

Howard told his brother that he was going to the market.   ………   Indirect form of speech

Direct speech consists of two parts:-
1. Reporting speech        2. Reported speech

These two parts are separated from each other by a comma (,) and inverted commas (“  ”). The part outside the inverted commas forms reporting speech (i.e. who is reporting and to whom) and that enclosed within the inverted commas is reported speech (i.e. the matter that is being reported).  The first word of the reported speech begins with a capital letter.

In Indirect Speech

– inverted commas are not used, but generally reporting speech and reported speech are joined together by the conjunction like ‘that’, ‘if’ or ‘whether’ etc.
-the comma between reporting speech and reported speech is removed.
– The signs of question mark and exclamation are not used. Instead full stop sign is used.
– The tense of reporting speech is not changed.
-The forms of interrogative, imperative, exclamatory and optative sentences are changed to assertive sentence.
– The tense of reported speech is changed according to the tense of reporting speech.

While changing Direct speech to Indirect speech, the rules of ‘Sequence of Tenses’ are followed.
A.  If the reporting verb is in the Present or Future Tenses, the tense of verb in the reported speech is not changed at all while changing from direct speech to indirect speech i.e.

1.Direct – He says, “ John paints a picture.”

Indirect –He says that John paints a picture.

 

2.Direct – He says, “ John painted a picture.”

Indirect –He says that John painted a picture.

 

3.Direct – He says, “ John will paint a picture.”

Indirect –He says that John will paint a picture.

 

4. Direct – He will say, “ John likes this picture.”

Indirect –He will say that John likes that picture.

 

5. Direct – He will say, “ John liked this picture.”

Indirect –He will say that John liked that picture.

 

6. Direct – He will say, “ John will like this picture.”

Indirect –He will say that John will like that picture.

B. If the reporting verb is in the Past Tense the tense of the verb in the Reported speech is changed      to one or the other of the four forms of the past tense ;
 thus :

1. Present Indefinite Tense changes into Past Indefinite Tense:

    First form of verb– Go or Goes-                                            Second form of verb –Went

2.Present Continuous Tense changes into Past Continuous Tense:

   Am,is or are + first form of verb +ing–                               was or were + first form of verb+ing

    am, is or are going                                                              was or were going

3. Present Perfect Tense changes into Past Perfect Tense:

    Has or Have + third form of verb                                   Had + third form of verb
Has or Have + gone  —                                                       Had + gone.

4.Present Perfect Continuous Tense changes into Past Perfect Continuous Tense:

  Has or Have been + first form of verb + ing-                                     Had been + first form of verb + ing
Has been going –                                                                                   Had been going

5. Past Indefinite Tense changes into Past Perfect Tense:

    Second form of verb                                              Had + third form of verb

    Went-                                                                     Had gone

6. Past Continuous Tense changes into Past Perfect Continuous Tense:

    Was or were + first form of verb +ing–                                       Had been + first form of verb+ ing

    was or were going –                                                                     Had been going

7. Past Perfect Tense & Past Perfect continuous tense remain unchanged.

    Had +  third form of verb & Had been + first form of verb + ing 

    Had gone & Had been going.


8. Shall & will change into would, can into could & may into might.

 

But  in general conversation or communication in indirect form the required changes are not made and thus errors are caused. For example He argued that I shall not take part in the competition. In fact this sentence is not correct.  It should be either   He said,” I shall not take part in the competition.”  or  He argued that he would not take part in the competition.

Some examples of sentences with such errors :

He thought that I can pass the examination without any difficulty.

She suggested to her brother  that we should go out for a dinner tonight.

His father asked him that you should accompany me to the market.

The doctor advised the patient that he takes his medicine regularly to get  relief.

The host asked the guests that whether they were getting late.

Apparently the sentences written above are correct but grammatically these  are not.

He thought,” I can pass the examination without any difficulty.”

He thought that he could pass the examination without any difficulty.

She said to her brother,” Let us go out for a dinner tonight.”

She suggested to her brother  that they  should go out for a dinner that night.

His father said to him,” You should accompany me  to the market.”

His father told him that he should accompany him to the market.

The doctor said to the patient,” Take your medicine regularly to get relief.”

The doctor advised the patient to take his medicine regularly to get  relief..

The host said to the guests,” Are you  getting late?”

The host asked the guests whether they were getting late.

Some exercises of sentences with errors to be rectified (for practice):

Exercise : (1)

Fill in the blanks with an appropriate clause out of given options :

  1.  She told her brother that………

          a she will not go to her office today.

          b. she would not go to her office that day.

      2. The host asked the visitor………

         a, what was her name.

        b. What her name was.

     3. The landlord asked the boy……...

          a. who has broken the window pane.

          b. who had broken the window pane.

    4.  She asked me………..

          a. who I wanted to see,

          b. whom I wanted to see.

    5. The peon asked the girl…

         a. whose book was that.

         b. whose book that was.

   6.  She told her friend that………..attend her party.

         a. she will not be able to

        b. she would not be able to

    7. The child told his mother that ………….

          a. I have not made any mischief.

          b. he had not made any mischief.

    8. The old man wondered………..

          a. what did all this make possible.

          b. what made all that possible

    9.  His brother emphasized to the officer that…….

          a. he  was living in that house for the last ten years.

          b. he had been living in that house for the last ten years.

  10.  The gatekeeper asked the visitor where……………at that late hour.

          a. did he come from

           b he came from

(Answers: 1 to 10 (b) )


 

Exercise : (2)

Read the following sentences carefully. These may contain mistakes. Select alphabet of the part containing error as your answer. If there is no error NE is the answer.

  1. a) The merchant told the villager b) that if he borrows money from him , he will  C) not charge any interest from him.NE.
  2. a) The teacher explained to the students b) how you should solve the problems C) with accuracy and promptness.NE.
  3. a) The police tried to enquire from the people b) present there that who C) had first created disturbance in the crowd. NE..
  4. a) His friend assured him that b) he could depend upon him for all the help c)  he needs for himself at that time.NE.
  5. a) The principal replied to the students b) that he was busy at that time and c) they can see him at some time the next day in his room.NE.

 

ANSWERS

  1. b 2.b  3.b  4. c 5.c

 

 





 

Exercise : (3)

(Change from Indirect to Direct form)

 

Exercise 3.1.

The gentleman asked the child in a loud voice who he was and why he had  been roaming in the garden at that time. 

The child respectfully replied in a very low voice that he had come there to see the garden. He loved flowers and wanted to see the blooming flowers. 

The gentleman asked the child if he did not know that he did not allow any body to enter his garden.

 He ordered him to leave the garden at once and forbade him to come there again.

The child requested the gentleman to allow him to stay there for some time because a few flowers had started blooming in a corner in the garden.

The gentleman exclaimed with surprise and asked if it was true that flowers had started blooming in his garden in the season of winter also. He told the child to let him see himself.

 

ANSWER

The gentleman said to  the child in a loud voice,”Who are you ? Why have you  been roaming in the garden at this time?” 

The gentleman said to the child,” Do you not know that I do not allow any body to enter my garden? He said to  him,”Leave the garden at once.Do not come here again.”

The child said to the gentleman, “Please allow me to stay here for some time because a few flowers have started blooming in a corner in the garden.”

The child said in a very low voice,” Sir, I have come here to see the garden. I love flowers.  I want to see the blooming flowers.” 

The gentleman said, “What! Is it true that flowers have started blooming in my garden in the season of winter also? Let me see myself,child.”





Exercise 3.2 

The beggar exclaimed saying that the rich man was very noble and told him that he had not taken any food that day and he was feeling very hungry. 

He requested him to have pity on him and give some food to him. He prayed to God to grant him a lot of wealth.

The rich man asked him why he begged alms and why he did not do any work. He told him that if he was interested he could arrange a good job for him.

The beggar exclaimed with joy and told him that he would be very thankful to the Almighty if it was so.   


ANSWER
The beggar said to the  rich man,”How noble you are !   I have not taken any food today. I am  feeling very hungry. Please have pity on me. Give me  some food. May God  grant you a lot of wealth !”

The rich man said to him,”Why do you beg alms? Why do you not do any work? If you are interested I can arrange a good job for you.”

The beggar said,”Hurrah! I shall be very thankful to the Almighty if it is so.”   





 

 

Exercise 3.3

The Lady Luck asked the young man why he was looking so sad that day and if he had lost anything and if he needed any help. She told him that if he liked she could help him.

He further asked her but who she was and if she knew him and why she was taking so much interest in him.

She told him that although they had not met each other earlier yet she knew him very well and she had come there to help him. 

She advised him not be afraid and told him that once they were friends she would never leave him. 

She told him further to let her assure him that he could depend upon her. 

She suggested to him that they should be friends and live happily.

The young man exclaimed with sorrow that he had lost his friends and told her that he had been helping his friends for a long time but they had deserted him when he had asked for their help.

The young man thanked her for her kind help and prayed that their friendship might last long.

 

ANSWER

The Lady Luck said to the  the young man,”  Why are you  looking so sad today? Have you  lost anything ? Do you  need any help? 

She said to him,” If you like I can  help you.”.

He said to her,” But who are you ? Do you know me?  Why are you taking so much interest in me?”

She said to him,” Although we have not met each other earlier yet I know you very well.I  have come here to help you.” 

She said to  him,” Do not be afraid. Once we are friends I shall never leave you.”

 She said to  him,”Let me assure you that you can depend upon me.”

.She said to him,” Let us  be friends and live happily.”

The young man said,” Alas! I  have lost my friends. I have been helping my friends for a long time but they deserted me when I asked for their help.”

The young man said to her,” Thank you for your kind help.May our friendship last long!”

 

 




 

 

Exercise 3.4

Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with an appropriate form of verbs given in brackets.

  1. Her friends told her that she …………..(deserve) their thanks for all that she ……….(do) for them.
  2. His mother wished that her daughter……..(may) get through the examination with a good position.
  3. The General ordered the troops to……..(move) forward and ………..(fight)  against the enemy bravely.
  4. The gardener asked the boy who he………(be) and where he had ……….(come) from.
  5. The old woman advised the children not to ………(disturb) her as she was not ……..(feel) well that day.

 

ANSWERS

  1. Her friends told her that she deserved their thanks for all that she had done for them.
  2. His mother wished that her daughter might get through the examination with a good position.
  3. The General ordered the troops to move forward and fight  against the enemy bravely.
  4. The gardener asked the boy who he was and where he had come from.
  5. The old woman advised the children not to disturb her as she was not feeling well that day.

 




 

 

Exercise 3.5

Out of sentences given under following four options, one sentence is correct grammatically. Find out the correct sentence and mark the alphabet mentioned against it as your answer.

I.

a. He said that  I do not know where does she live.

b. He said that  he does not know where does she live.

c.  He said that he does not know where she lives.

d. He said  that he did not know where she lived.

 

 

2.

a. Nobody told me  where he came from.

b. Nobody told me  where did  he come from.

c. Nobody told me  from where did  he come.

d. Nobody told me  where did he came from.

 

 

3.

a. She suggested me that I  take part in the competition.

b. She suggested to me that we should take part in the competition.

c. She suggested to me that they should take part in the competition.

d. She suggested to me that they would take part in the competition.

 

 

4.

a. After examining the patient, the doctors found that he is fit now.

b. After examining the patient, the doctors found that he is fit then.

c. After examining the patient, the doctors found that he was fit now.

d. After examining the patient, the doctors found that he was fit then

 

 

5.

a. He doubted whether I shall stay with him that day.

b. He doubted whether I would  stay with him that day.

c. He doubted whether I shall stay with him to day.

d. He doubted whether  shall  I stay with him that day.

 

 

6.

a. Finally, the thief confessed that he has stolen his watch.

b. Finally the thief confessed he has stolen his watch.

c. Finally, the thief confessed that he had stolen his watch.

d. Finally, the thief confessed whether he has stolen his watch.

 

 

7.

a. The pilot misconstrued that he will be able to manage safe landing of the aeroplane with the help of analternate engine.

b. The pilot misconstrued that he was able to manage safe landing of the aeroplane with the help of an alternate engine.

c. The pilot misconstrued that he would be able to manage safe landing of the aeroplane with the help of an alternate engine.

d. The pilot misconstrued that he had been able to manage safe landing of the aeroplane with the help of an alternate engine.

 

 

8.

a. His father forbade him not to fall into bad company or he will come to grief.

b. His father forbade him not to fall in bad company or he would come to grief.

c. His father forbade him not to fall into bad company or he will come to grief.

d. His father forbade him to fall into bad company or he would come to grief.

 

 

9.

a. His brother told me that he knew the boy who topped in his class last year.

b. His brother told me that he knew the boy who had topped in his class last year.

c. His brother told me that he knows the boy who topped in his class last year.

d. His brother told me that he had known the boy who topped in his class last year.

 

 

10.

a. The officer put forth a question to all the members present in the meeting who do you think will be elected president.

b. The officer put forth a question to all the members present in the meeting who do they think will be elected president.

c. The officer put forth a question to all the members present in the meeting who they think will be elected president.

d. The officer put forth a question to all the members present in the meeting who they thought would be elected president.

 

 

 

ANSWERS : 1.d 2.a 3. b 4.c 5. b 6. c 7. c 8.d  9.b 10.d

 



 

 

Exercise 3.6

Read the following sentences carefully and out of given options select the best one that substitutes the underlined portion correctly in the sentence. Mark the alphabet against it as your answer. (Narration related sentences only)

 

  1. The captain shouted happily that they had won the match.

a. The captain merrily shouted

b. The captain gladly and loudly spoke

c. The captain exclaimed with joy

d. The captain expressed joy saying

 

 

2. The Prime Minister assured the house that before it signing the agreement every aspect will be discussed                               thoroughly.

a.that before signing the agreement every aspects will be thoroughly discussed.

b.that before being signed the agreement every aspect will be discussed  thoroughly.

c.that before signing the agreement every aspect would be discussed  thoroughly.

d.that before signing the agreement every aspects would be discussed  thoroughly.

 

 

3. The leader  announced that all the residents of the area will get benefits of the new schemes within a month.

a. all the resident in the area will get benefits of the new schemes within a month.

b. all the residents of the area to get benefits of the new schemes within a month.

c. all the residents of the area  get benefits of the new schemes within a month.

d. all the residents of the area would get benefits of the new schemes within a month.

 

 

4. The gardener forbade all the children roaming in the garden not to pluck any flower else they will be punished.

a.all the children roaming in the garden not to pluck any flower else they would be punished.

b.all the children roaming in the garden to pluck any flower else they would be punished.

c.all the children roaming the garden not to pluck any flower else they would be punished.

d.all the children roaming in the garden not to pluck any flower else will be punished.

 

 

5. The inspector observed that all the articles in the house are scattered here and there and it appeared evidences                  were tried to be tempered with.

a. all the articles in the house were scattered here and there and it appeared evidences had been tried to be tempered with.

b. all the articles in the house are scattered here and there and it appeared evidences were tried to be tempered.

c. all the articles in the house were scattered here and there and it appeared evidences were tried to be tempered with.

d. all the articles in the house scattered here and there and it appeared evidences are tried to be tempered with.

 

 

ANSWERS 1. c     2.c    3.d    4.b   5.a

 

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